Common APA Reference List Models

This guide contains examples of references in APA style. The references are grouped by category: periodicals; books and reference books; audiovisual media; and internet resources. In addition, general samples of corresponding citations are provided within each reference category.

For an example of a formatted References list, click here.


Periodicals

Items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters.

Reference List Format: Periodical

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned, include URL address with no ending punctuation (see example below).

Example: Journal article with DOI

Florian, R. V. (2010). Challenges for interactivist–constructivist robotics. New Ideas in Psychology, 28(3), 350–353. doi:10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.009

Example: Journal article without DOI

Santovec, M. (2008). Easing the transition improves grad retention at Trinity U. Women in Higher Education, 17(10), 32. Retrieved from http://www.trinitydc.edu/education/files/2010/09/Women_in_higher_
Ed_Trinity_Transistions_10_08.pdf

Example: Magazine article, print

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packared, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26–29.

Example: Online magazine article

Walk, V. (2013, April). Can this woman fix Europe? Time, 181(13). Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,213969.html

Example: Online newspaper article

Tobin Ramos, R. (2010, July 22). UPS profit nearly doubles in second quarter. The Atlanta Journal–Constitution. Retrieved from http://www.ajc.com

Example: Newsletter article

Burnside, P. (2010, July). Why EFTPS is a good fit for governments. FSLG Newsletter. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs–tege/p4090_0710.pdf

In–text citation samples

Citing paraphrased information: Paraphrased text (Santovec, 2008).
Or: According to Santovec (2008), paraphrased text.

Citing quoted information: "Quote" (Santovec, 2008, para. 3).
Or: As stated by Santovec (2008), "Quote" (para. 3).

Citing online publications: If a page number is not available, use paragraph numbers (use the abbreviation para.). If the document includes headings but does not provide page or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the heading. For example, (Wilson, 2010, "Educating Adults," para. 2).

Citing Secondary Sources: If you use a source that is cited in another source, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if you are reading a document authored by Fisher and Fisher that cites Darwin's work, list the Fisher reference in the References list. In the text, use the following citation:

Darwin argued, [insert paraphrased text] (as cited in Fisher, 2005).

Or: Darwin argued, [insert "quote"] (as quoted in Fisher, 2005).

Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters

Books and reference books such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, and discipline–specific reference books. Also includes books that are published in electronic form.

Reference List Format: Book (print or electronic)

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx.xxx

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxx

Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Ed.). (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example: Book, print version

Diaz–Rico, L. T. (2008). A course for teaching English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Example: Book, Ashford custom edition

Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Bateman, T. S., Snell, S. A., Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2007). Organizational change (Ashford University ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Example: Book, compilation or edited

Easton, T. A. (Ed.). (2008). Clashing views on environmental issues (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Example: Book, (Constellation eBook)

Witt, G. A., & Mossler, R. A. (2010). Adult development and life assessment. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Example: Reference book, print

Costello, R. B. (Ed.). (1995). Random House Webster’s college dictionary. New York, NY: Random House.

Example: Reference book, online

Mawson, C. O. S. (Ed.). Roget’s international thesaurus of English words and phrases. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/br/110.html

In-text citation samples

Citing quoted information:

"Quote" (Witt & Mossler, 2010, p. 47). Or:
As stated by Witt & Mossler (2010), "quote" (p. 47).

Citing paraphrase information:

Paraphrased text (Witt & Mossler, 2010). Or:
According to Witt & Mossler (2010), paraphrased text.

Citing electronic books:

If a page number is not available, use paragraph numbers (use the abbreviation para.). If the document includes headings but does not provide page or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the heading. For example, (Wilson, 2010, "Educating Adults," para. 2).

Quoting from secondary sources:

If you use a source that is cited in another source, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if you are reading a document authored by Fisher and Fisher that cites Darwin's work, list the Fisher reference in the References list. In the text, use the following citation:

Darwin argued, [insert paraphrased text] (as cited in Fisher, 2005). Or:
Darwin argued, [insert "quote"] (as quoted in Fisher, 2005).

Reference List Format:

Title of entry. (Publication Year). In Editor's first initial, Editor's Last Name (Ed.) Title of reference work. (xx Ed., Vol. xx, pp. xx–xx). Location: Publisher.

Title of entry. (Publication Year). In Editor's first initial, Editor's Last Name (Ed.) Title of reference work. (xx Ed., Vol. xx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx.xxx

If no editor is listed, place the title after the year of publication (see sample below).

Example:

Cayman Islands. (2008). The world factbook. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/br/151.htm

Audiovisual Media

Movies, YouTube videos, recording albums, and audio or television broadcasts.

Reference List Format: Motion Picture

Producer’s Last Name, Initials (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Example: Video

Auer, J. & Looze, C. (Producers), & Looze, C. (Director). (1993). A partner to genius: Olgivanna Lloyd Wright [Video recording]. Milwaukee, WI: WMVS WMVT.

Reference List Format: YouTube

Screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/xxx.com

Example: YouTube video

EnglishTeacherEmma. (2013, January 30). 5 tips to improve your writing [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgkRoYPLhts

Reference List Format: Music recording

Writer’s Last Name, Initials. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist Name if different from writer]. On Title of album [recording medium: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright).

Example: Music recording

Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Example: Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

In-text citation example: Video

Paraphrased text (Auer & Looze, 1993). Or:

As described in the video, A Partner to Genius: Olgivanna Lloyd Wright, (Auer & Looze, 1993), paraphrased text.

Example: Single episode from a television series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

Additional Internet Sources

Example: Blog post

PZ Myers. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

Example: Website, corporate author

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Police and detectives. Retrieved from http://bls.gov/oco/pdf/ocos160.pdf